Rational thinking in the realm of the management of state (kingdom) was so much fostered in India that it evolved to a political philosophy of effective values. Kautilya or Vishnugupta, 391-296 B.C., is a representing authority of Political Philosophy in India. Plato, the great Greek philosopher, 4th century B.C., stands to be the most elegant exponent of political philosophy of Greece and western world. Hence, a comparative study of Arthasastra and The Republic is a demanding and delightful pursuit. This book stands on the specifies of issues, as delineated in Arthasastra and the Republic, namely, i) state and society, ii) the king, virtues and duties, iii) status of woman, iv) philosopher and saintly king v) education vi) concept of virtue vii) whether end justifies the means viii) individual and social morality ix) concept of happiness x) soul, immortality of soul xi) concept of war and other issues having incisive enquiry. It exorts to grasp their views on the issues. It is a delightful experience, brain storming thought, to sail through the comparative study concerning the political philosophy of the two contemporary great philosophers of distant worlds. Like comparative philology, comparative study of philosophy awaits to be a lively area to understand the world civilization in a better way. Enriching and inspirational, it will be very useful for the general study and research work for academic institutes, libraries and individuals in India and all over the world.